Please email me others.
An animal learns to make the correct response by learning to not make incorrect responses. That is, the animal learns to stop making incorrect responses. Then, all that is left is the correct response.
Harlow developed his learning theory while working with Rhesus monkeys. He gave the animals a long series of six-trial two-choice discrimination problems.
On the first few problems (not trials) the animals learned very little over the six trials. On the sixth trial the animal was correct only about 70% of the time. On the second trial the animal was correct only about 50% of the time. AND
He discovered after 200 problems (NOT trials), the monkeys were always correct on the second trial.
By looking at the trial-by-trial and problem-by-problem data records, Harlow surmised that the animals had to learn not to make certain kinds of errors.
As an animal eliminated these error factors (error tendencies), performance would get better as now the animal was attending to the object being chosen. After abut 200 problems, the animals had solved the problem: on trial 2 stay with the winning stimulus; choose the other one if you lost.
I think of this principle in terms of an story told about Michelangelo. He was asked how he could ever carve such a masterpiece of sculpture such as the David. He said it was pretty simple. All you had to do was chisel off all the rock that wasn't David, and there it was.
All you have to do to learn is to learn what not to do, and what remains is the correct performance.
Incidently, you may remember that Harry Harlow was the scientist that conducted the research with baby monkeys relating to cloth and wire "mothers."
Karl R. Popper And if we are not afraid to make mistakes from which we can learn. Kelvin Throop Anonymous William E. Gladstone Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962) Albert Einstein Anonymous Oscar Wilde F.P. Jones
We make progress if, and only if, we are prepared to learn from our mistakes.
Mistakes are seldom serious unless repeated.
No [person] ever became great or good except though many and great mistakes.
An expert is a man who has made all the mistakes, which can be made, in a very narrow field.
Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.
Good judgement comes from experience, and a lot of experience comes from bad judgement.
Experience is the name everyone gives to their mistakes.
Experience is that marvelous thing that enables you to recognize a mistake when you make it again.
Karl R. Popper
And if we are not afraid to make mistakes from which we can learn.
William E. Gladstone
Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962)